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Bynner (Translator)


"Written more than two thousand years ago, the Tao Teh Ching is probably the most influential work of Asian thought. . . . This lucid translation demonstrates that these teachings are useful in the arts of leadership as they are in developing a sense of balance and harmony in everyday life."— Branches of Light

When you read the translator's book, you will benefit tremendously by his/her footnotes and insights, without which the Daodejing's wisdom and magic is not totally revealed. This project is concerned only with comparing line by line translations of the various masters. To unlock the beauty and depth of the Daodejing's wisdom, you can do better than simply reading the translated text, we need the expertise of a good guide and the author is such a person.


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1.1 Existence is beyond the power of words To define: Terms may be used But are none of them absolute.
1.2 In the beginning of heaven and earth there were no words, Words came out of the womb of matter;
1.3 And whether a man dispassionately Sees to the core of life Or passionately Sees the surface,
1.4 The core and the surface Are essentially the same, Words making them seem different Only to express appearance.
1.5 If name be needed, wonder names them both: From wonder into wonder Existence opens.

2.1 People through finding something beautiful Think something else unbeautiful,
2.2 Through finding one man fit Judge another unfit.
2.3 Life and death, though stemming from each other, seem to conflict as stages of change, Difficult and easy as phases of achievement, Long and short as measures of contrast,
2.4 High and low as degrees of relation; But, since the varying to tones gives music to a voice And what is is the was of what shall be,
2.5 The sanest man Sets up no deed, Lays down no law,
2.6 Takes everything that happens as it comes, As something to animate, not to appropriate,
2.7 To earn, not to own, To accept naturally without self-importance: If you never assume importance You never lose it.

3.1 It is better not to make merit a matter of reward Lest people conspire and contend,
3.2 Not to pile up rich belongings Lest they rob,
3.3 Nor to excite by display Lest they covet.
3.4 A sound leader's aim Is to open people's hearts, Fill their stomachs, Calm their wills, Brace their bones
3.5 And so to clarify their thoughts and cleanse their needs That no cunning meddler could touch them:
3.6 Without being forced, without strain or constraint, Good government comes of itself.

4.1 Existence, by nothing bred, Breeds everything
4.2 Parent of the universe,
4.3 It smooths rough edges, Unties hard knots, Tempers the sharp sun, Lays blowing dust,
4.4 Its image in the wellspring never fails.
4.5 But how was it conceived? - this image Of no other sire.

5.1 Nature, immune as to a sacrifice of straw dogs, Faces the decay of its fruits.
5.2 A sound man, immune as to a sacrifice of straw dogs, Faces the passing of human generations.
5.3 The universe, like a bellows, Is always emptying, always full: The more it yields, the more it holds.
5.4 Men come to their wit's end arguing about it And had better meet it at the marrow.

6.1 The breath of life moves through a deathless valley Of mysterious motherhood
6.2 Which conceives and bears the universal seed, The seeming of a world never to end,
6.3 Breath for men to draw from as they will: And the more they take of it, the more remains.

7.1 The universe is deathless,
7.2 Is deathless because, having no finite self, It stays infinite.
7.3 A sound man by not advancing himself Stays the further ahead of himself,
7.4 By not confining himself to himself Sustains himself outside himself:
7.5 By never being an end in himself He endlessly becomes himself.

8.1 Man is at his best, like water, Serves as he goes along: Like water he seeks his own level, The common level of life,
8.2 Loves living close to the earth, Living clear down in his heart, Loves kinship with his neighbours, The pick of words that tell the truth,
8.3 The even tenor of a well-run state, The fair profit of able dealing, The right timing of useful deeds,
8.4 And for blocking no one's way No one blames him.

9.1 Keep stretching a bow You repent of the pull,
9.2 A whetted saw Goes thin and dull,
9.3 Surrounded with treasure Your lie ill at ease,
9.4 Proud beyond measure You come to your knees:
9.5 Do enough, without vying, Be living, not dying.

10.1 Can you hold the door of your tent Wide to the firmament?
10.2 Can you, with the simple stature Of a child, breathing nature, Become, notwithstanding, A man?
10.4 Can you continue befriending With no prejudice, no ban?
10.5 Can you, mating with heaven, Serve as the female part?
10.6 Can your learned head take leaven From the wisdom in your heart?
10.7 If you can bear issue and nourish its growing. If you can guide without claim or strife, If you can stay in the lead of men without their knowing, You are at the core of life.

11.1 Thirty spokes are made one by holes in a hub By vacancies joining them for a wheel's use.
11.2 The use of clay in moulding pitchers Comes from the hollow of its absence;
11.3 Doors, windows, in a house, Are used for their emptiness:
11.4 Thus we are helped by what is not to use what is.

12.1 The five colours can blind, The five tones deafen, The five tastes cloy.
12.2 The race, the hunt, can drive men mad And their booty leave them no peace.
12.3 Therefore a sensible man Prefers the inner to the outer eye: He has his yes, - he has his no.

13.1 Favour and disfavour have been called equal worries, Success and failure have been called equal ailments.
13.2 How can favour and disfavour be called equal worries? Because winning favour burdens a man With the fear of losing it.
13.3 How can success and failure be called equal ailments? Because a man thinks of the personal body as self. When he no longer thinks of the personal body as self Neither failure nor success can ail him.
13.4 One who knows his lot to be the lot of all other men Is a safe man to guide them, One who recognizes all men as members of his own body Is a sound man to guard them.

14.1 What we look for beyond seeing And call the unseen, Listen for beyond hearing, Grasp for beyond reaching and call the
14.2 Merge beyond understanding In a oneness
14.3 Which does not merely rise and give light, Does not merely set and leave darkness, But forever sends forth a succession of living things as mysterious As the unbegotten existence to which they return.
14.4 That is why men have called them empty phenomena, Meaningless images, In a mirage With no face to meet, No back to follow.
14.5 Yet one who is anciently aware of existence Is master of every moment, Feels no break since time beyond time In the way life flows.

15.1 Long ago the land was ruled with a wisdom Too fine, too deep, to be fully understood
15.2 And, since it was beyond men's full understanding, Only some of it has come down to us, as in these sayings: 'Alert as a winter-farer on an icy stream,' 'Wary as a man in an ambush,' 'Considerate as a welcome guest,'
15.3 'Selfless as melting ice,' 'Green as an uncut tree,' 'Open as a valley,' And this one also, 'Roiled as a torrent.'
15.4 Why roiled as a torrent? Because when a man is in turmoil how shall he find peace Save by staying patient till the stream clears? How can a man's life keep its course If he will not let it flow?
15.5 Those who flow as life flows know They need no other force: They feel no wear, they feel no tear, They need no mending, no repair.

16.1 Be utterly humble And you shall hold to the foundation of peace.
16.2 Be at one with all these living things which, having arisen and flourished, Return to the quiet whence they came, Like a healthy growth of vegetation Falling back upon the root.
16.3 Acceptance of this return to the root has been called 'quietism,' Acceptance of quietism has been condemned as 'fatalism.' But fatalism is acceptance of destiny And to accept destiny is to face life with open eyes, Whereas not to accept destiny is to face death blindfold.
16.4 He who is open-eyed is open-minded, He who is open-minded is open-hearted, He who is open-hearted is kingly, He who is kingly is godly, He who is godly is useful, He who is useful is infinite,
16.5 He who is infinite is immune, He who is immune is immortal.

17.1 A leader is best When the people barely know that he exists, Not so good when people obey and acclaim him, Worst when they despise him.
17.2 'Fail to honour people, They fail to honour you;'
17.3 But of a good leader, who talks little, When his work is done, his aim fulfilled, They will all say, 'We did this ourselves.'

18.1 When people lost sight of the way to live Came codes of love and honesty,
18.2 Learning came, charity came, Hypocrisy took charge;
18.3 When differences weakened family ties Came benevolent fathers and dutiful sons;
18.4 And when lands were disrupted and misgoverned Came ministers commended as loyal.

19.1 Rid of formalized wisdom and learning People would be a hundredfold happier,
19.2 Rid of conventionalized duty and honour People would find their families dear,
19.3 Rid of legalized profiteering People would have no thieves to fear.
19.4 These methods of life have failed, all three,
19.5 Here is the way, it seems to me: Set people free, As deep in their hearts they would like to be, From private greeds And wanton needs.

20.1 Leave off fine learning! End the nuisance Of saying yes to this and perhaps to that, Distinctions with how little difference! Categorical this, categorical that, What slightest use are they!
20.2 If one man leads another must follow, How silly that is and how false!
20.3 Yet conventional men lead an easy life With all their feast-days, A constant spring visit to the Tall Tower, While I am a simpleton, a do-nothing, Not big enough yet to raise a hand, Not grown enough to smile, A homeless, worthless waif.
20.4 Men of the world have a surplus of goods, While I am left out, owning nothing. What a booby I must be Not to know my way round, What a fool!
20.5 The average man is so crisp and so confident That I ought to be miserable Going on and on like the sea, Drifting nowhere.

21.1 The surest test if a man be sane Is if he accepts life whole, as it is,
21.2 Without needing by measure or touch to understand The measureless untouchable source Of its images, The measureless untouchable source Of its substances, The source which, while it appears dark emptiness, Brims with a quick force Farthest away And yet nearest at hand
21.3 From oldest time unto this day, Changing its images with origin:
21.4 What more need I know of the origin Than this?

22.1 "Yield and you need not break:" Bent you can straighten, Emptied you can hold, Torn you can mend; And as want can reward you So wealth can bewilder.
22.2 Aware of this, a wise man has the simple return Which other men seek:
22.3 Without inflaming himself He is kindled, Without explaining himself Is explained, Without taking credit Is accredited, Laying no claim Is acclaimed
22.4 And, because he does not compete, Finds peaceful competence.
22.5 How true is the old saying "Yield and you need not break"! How completely it comes home!

23.1 Nature does not have to insist, Can blow for only half a morning, Rain for only half a day,
23.2 And what are these winds and these rains but natural? If nature does not have to insist, Why should man?
23.3 It is natural too That whoever follows the way of life feels alive, That whoever uses it properly feels well used, Whereas he who loses the way of life feels lost,
23.4 That whoever keeps to the way of life Feels at home, Whoever uses it properly Feels welcome, Whereas he who uses it improperly Feels improperly used:
23.5 'Fail to honour people, They fail to honour you.'

24.1 Standing tiptoe a man loses balance, Walking stride he has no pace,
24.2 Kindling himself he fails to light, Acquitting himself he forfeits his hearers,
24.3 Admiring himself he does so alone. Pride has never brought a man greatness
24.4 But, according to the way of life, Brings the ills that make him unfit, Make him unclean in the eyes of his neighbour, And a sane man will have none of them.

25.1 Before creation a presence existed, Self-contained, complete, Formless, voiceless, mateless, Changeless, Which yet pervaded itself With unending motherhood.
25.2 Though there can be no name for it, I have called it 'the way of life.' Perhaps I should have called it 'the fullness of life,'
25.3 Since fullness implies widening into space, Implies still further widening, Implies widening until the circle is whole.
25.4 In this sense The way of life is fulfilled, Heaven is fulfilled, Earth fulfilled And a fit man also is fulfilled: These are the four amplitudes of the universe And a fit man is one of them:
25.5 Man rounding the way of earth, Earth rounding the way of heaven, Heaven rounding the way of life Till the circle is full.

26.1 Gravity is the root of all grace, The mainstay of all speed.
26.2 A traveler of true means, whatever the days pace, Remembers his provision-van And, however fine prospect be offered, is a man With a calm head.
26.3 What lord of countless chariots would ride them in vain, Would make himself fool of the realm,
26.4 With pace beyond rein, Speed beyond helm?

27.1 One may move so well that a footprint never shows, Speak so well that the tongue never slips, Reckon so well that no counter is needed,
27.2 Seal an entrance so tight, though using no lock, That it cannot be opened, Bind a hold so firm, though using no cord, That it cannot be untied.
27.3 All these are traits not only of a sound man But of many a man thought to be unsound. A sound man is good at salvage, At seeing than nothing is lost. Having what is called insight,
27.4 A good man, before he can help a bad man, Finds in himself the matter with the bad man.
27.5 And whichever teacher Discounts the lesson Is as far off the road as the other, Whatever else he may know. That is the heart of it.

28.1 'One who has a man's wings And a woman's also Is in himself a womb of the world' And, being a womb of the world, Continuously, endlessly, Gives birth;
28.2 One who, preferring light, Prefers darkness also Is in himself an image of the world And, being an image of the world, Is continuously, endlessly The dwelling of creation;
28.3 One who is highest of men And humblest also Is in himself a valley of the world, And, being a valley of the world, Continuously, endlessly Conducts the one source From which vessels may be usefully filled;
28.4 Servants of the state are such vessels, To be filled from an undiminishing supply.

29.1 Those who would take over the earth And shape it to their will Never, I notice, succeed.
29.2 The earth is like a vessel so sacred That at the mere approach of the profane It is marred And when they reach out their fingers it is gone.
29.3 For a time in the world some force themselves ahead And some are left behind, For a time in the world some make a great noise And some are held silent, For a time in the world some are puffed fat And some are kept hungry, For a time in the world some push aboard And some are tipped out:
29.4 At no time in the world will a man who is sane Over-reach himself, Over-spend himself, Over-rate himself.

30.1 One who would guide a leader of men in the uses of life Will warn him against the use of arms for conquest. Weapons often turn upon the wielder,
30.2 An army's harvest is a waste of thorns, Conscription of a multitude of men Drains the next year dry.
30.3 A good general, daring to march, dares also to halt, Will never press his triumph beyond need.
30.4 What he must do he does but not for glory, What he must do he does but not for show, What he must do he does but not for self; He has done it because it had to be done, Not from a hot head.
30.5 Let life ripen and then fall, Force is not the way at all: Deny the way of life and you are dead.

31.1 Even the finest arms are an instrument of evil, A spread of plague, And the way for a vital man to go is not the way of a soldier.
31.2 But in time of war men civilized in peace Turn from their higher to their lower nature.
31.3 Arms are an instrument of evil, No measure for thoughtful men Until there fail all other choice But sad acceptance of it.
31.4 Triumph is not beautiful. He who thinks triumph beautiful Is one with a will to kill, And one with a will to kill Shall never prevail upon the world.
31.5 It is a good sign when man's higher nature comes forward, When retainers take charge And the master stays back As in the conduct of a funeral.
31.6 The death of a multitude is a cause for mourning: Consider your triumph as a funeral.
32.4 But men of culture came, with their grades and their distinctions; And as soon as such differences had been devised No one knew where to end them, Though the one who does know the end of all such differences Is the sound man:

32.1 Existence is infinite, not to be defined; And, though it seems a bit of wood in your hand, to carve as you please, It is not to be lightly played with and laid down.
32.2 When rulers adhered to the way of life, They were upheld by natural loyalty:
32.3 Heaven and earth were joined and made fertile, Life was a freshness of rain, Subject to none, Free to all.
32.5 Existence Might be likened to the course Of many rivers reaching the one sea.

33.1 Knowledge studies others, Wisdom is self-known;
33.2 Muscle masters brothers, Self mastery is bone;
33.3 Content need never borrow, Ambition wanders blind:
33.4 Vitality cleaves to the marrow Leaving death behind.

34.1 Bountiful life, letting anyone attend, Making no distinction between left or right.
34.2 Feeding everyone, refusing no one, Has not provided this bounty to show how much it owns, Has not fed and clad its guests with any thought of claim;
34.3 And, because it lacks the twist Of mind and body in what it has done, The guile of head or hands, Is not always respected by a guest.
34.4 Others appreciate welcome from the perfect host
34.5 Who, barely appearing to exist, Exists the most.

35.1 If the sign of life is in your face He who responds to it Will feel secure and fit
35.2 As when, in a friendly place, Sure of hearty care, A traveler gladly waits.
35.3 Though it may not taste like food And he may not see the fare Or hear the sound of plates, How endless it is and how good!

36.1 He who feels punctured Must once have been a bubble, He who feels unarmed Must have carried arms, He who feels belittled Must have been consequential, He who feels deprived Must have had privilege,
36.2 Whereas a man with insight Knows that to keep under is to endure.
36.3 What happens to a fish pulled out of a pond? Or to an implement of state pulled out of a scabbard? Unseen, they survive.

37.1 The way to use life is to do nothing through acting, The way to use life is to do everything through being.
37.2 When a leader knows this, His land naturally goes straight. And the world's passion to stray from straightness Is checked at the core By the simple undatable cleanness Through which men cease from coveting,
37.3 And to a land where men cease from coveting Peace comes of course.

38.1 A man of sure fitness, without making a point of his fitness, Stays fit; A man of unsure fitness, assuming an appearance of fitness, Becomes unfit.
38.2 The man of sure fitness never makes an act of it Nor considers what it may profit him; The man of unsure fitness makes an act of it And considers what it may profit him.
38.3 However a man with a kind heart may proceed, He forgets what it may profit him; However a man with a just mind proceed, He remembers what it may profit him; However a man of conventional conduct proceed, if he be not complied with Out goes his fist to enforce compliance.
38.4 Here is what happens: Losing the way of life, men rely first on their fitness; Losing fitness, they turn to kindness; Losing kindness, they turn to justness; Losing justness, they turn to convention.
38.5 Conventions are fealty and honesty gone to waste, They are the entrance of disorder. False teachers of life use flowery words And start nonsense.
38.6 The man of stamina stays with the root Below the tapering. Stays with the fruit Beyond the flowering: He has his no and he has his yes.

39.1 The wholeness of life has, from of old, been made manifest in its parts: Clarity has been made manifest in heaven, Firmness in earth, Purity in the spirit,
39.2 In the valley conception, In the river procreation; And so in a leader are the people made manifest For wholeness of use.
39.3 But for clarity heaven would be veiled, But for firmness earth would have crumbled, But for purity spirit would have fumbled,
39.4 But for conception the valley would have failed, But for procreation the river have run dry; So, save for the people, a leader shall die:
39.5 Always the low carry the high On a root for growing by. What can stand lofty with no low foundation?
39.6 No wonder leaders of a land profess Their stature and their station To be servitude and lowliness!
39.7 If rim and spoke and hub were not, Where would be the chariot?
39.8 Who will prefer the jingle of jade pendants if He once has heard stone growing in a cliff!

40.1 Life on its way returns into a mist, Its quickness is its quietness again:
40.2 Existence of this world of things and men Renews their needing to exist.

41.1 Men of stamina, knowing the way of life, Steadily keep to it; Unstable men, knowing the way of life, Keep to it or not according to occasion;
41.2 Stupid men, knowing the way of life And having once laughed at it, laugh again the louder. If you need to be sure which way is right, you can tell by their laughing at it.
41.3 They fling the old charges: 'A wick without oil,' 'For every step forward a step or two back,' To such laughers a level road looks steep, Top seems bottom,
41.4 'White appears black,' 'Enough is a lack,' Endurance is a weakness, Simplicity a faded flower.
41.5 But eternity is his who goes straight round the circle, Foundation is his who can feel beyond touch, Harmony is his who can hear beyond sound, Pattern is his who can see beyond shape: Life is his who can tell beyond words Fulfilment of the unfulfilled.

42.1 Life, when it came to be, Bore one, then two, then three Elements of things; And thus the three began - Heaven and earth and man - To balance happenings:
42.2 Cool night behind, warm day ahead, For the living, for the dead.
42.3 Though a commoner be loth to say That he is only common clay, Kings and princes often state How humbly they are leading,
42.4 Because in true succeeding High and low correlate.
42.5 It is an ancient thought, Which men have taught, That he who over-reaches And tries to live by force Shall die thereby of course, And is what my own heart teaches.

43.1 As the soft yield of water cleaves obstinate stone, So to yield with life solves the insoluble: To yield, I have learned, is to come back again.
43.2 but this unworded lesson, This easy example, Is lost upon men.

44.1 Which means more to you, You or your renown? Which brings more to you, You or what you own? And which would cost you more If it were gone?
44.2 The niggard pays, The miser loses.
44.3 The least ashamed of all men Goes back if he chooses: He knows both ways, He starts again.

45.1 A man's work, however finished it seem, Continue as long as he live; A man, however perfect he seem, Is needed as long as he live: As long as truth appears falsity, The seer a fool, The prophet a dumb lout,
45.2 -
45.3 If you want to keep warm keep stirring about, Keep still if you want to keep cool, And in all the world one day no doubt Your way shall be the rule.

46.1 In a land where the way of life is understood Race-horses are led back to serve the field; In a land where the way of life is not understood War-horses are bred on the autumn yield.
46.2 Owning is the entanglement, Wanting is the bewilderment, Taking is the presentiment:
46.3 Only he who contains content Remains content.

47.1 There is no need to run outside For better seeing, Nor to peer from a window. Rather abide At the center of your being; For the more you leave, the less you learn.
47.2 Search your heart and see If he is wise who takes each turn: The way to do is to be.

48.1 A man anxious for knowledge adds more to himself every minute; A man acquiring life loses himself in it, Has less and less to bear in mind, Less and less to do,
48.2 Because life, he finds, is well inclined, Including himself too. Often a man sways the world like a wind But not by deed;
48.3 And if there appear to you to be need Of motion to sway it, it has left you behind.

49.1 A sound man's heart is not shut within itself But is open to other people's hearts:
49.2 I find good people good, And I find bad people good If I am good enough
49.3 I trust men of their word And I trust liars If I am true enough;
49.4 I feel the heart-beats of others Above my own If I am enough of a father, Enough of a son.

50.1 Death might appear to be the issue of life,
50.2 Since for every three out of ten being born Three out of ten are dying. They why Should another three out of ten continue breeding death? Because of sheer madness to multiply.
50.3 But there is one out of ten, so sure of life That tiger and wild bull keep clear of his inland path, Weapons turn from him on the battle-field,
50.4 No bull-horn could tell where to gore him, No tiger-claw where to tear him, No weapon where to enter him And why? Because he has no death to die.

51.1 Existence having born them And fitness bred them, While matter varied their forms And breath empowered them, All created things render, to the existence and fitness they depend on, An obedience
51.2 Not commanded but of course. And since this is the way existence bears issue And fitness raises, attends, Shelters, feeds and protects, Do you likewise:
51.3 Be parent, not possessor, Attendant, not master, Be concerned not with obedience but with benefit, And you are at the core of living.

52.1 The source of life Is as a mother.
52.2 Be fond of both mother and children but know the mother dearer And you outlive death.
52.3 Curb your tongue and senses And you are beyond trouble,
52.4 Let them loose And you are beyond help.
52.5 Discover that nothing is too small for clear vision, Too insignificant for tender strength,
52.6 Use outlook And insight, Use them both And you are immune: For you have witnessed eternity.

53.1 If I had any learning Of a highway wide and fit, Would I lose it at each turning?
53.2 Yet look at people spurning Natural use of it!
53.3 See how fine the palaces And see how poor the farms, How bare the peasants' granaries
53.4 While gentry wear embroideries Hiding sharpened arms, And the more they have the more they seize, How can there be such men as these Who never hunger, never thirst Yet eat and drink until they burst! There are other brigands, but these are the worst Of all the highway's harms.

54.1 'Since true foundation cannot fail But holds as good as new, Many a worshipful son shall hail A father who lived true.'
54.2 Realized in one man, fitness has its rise; Realized in a family, fitness multiplies; Realized in a village, fitness gathers weight; Realized in a country, fitness becomes great; Realized in the world, fitness fills the skies.
54.3 And thus the fitness of one man You find in the family he began, You find in the village that accrued, You find in the country that ensued, You find in the world's whole multitude.
54.4 How do I know this integrity? Because it could all begin in me.

55.1 He whom life fulfills, Though he remains a child, Is immune to the poisonous sting Of insects, to the ravening Of wild beasts or to vultures' bills. He needs no more bone or muscle than a baby's for sure hold.
55.2 Without thought of joined organs, he is gender Which grows firm, unfaltering.
55.3 Though his voice should cry out at full pitch all day, it would not rasp but would stay tender Through the perfect balancing Of a man at endless ease with everything Because of the true life he has led.
55.4 To try for more than this bodes ill. It is said, ' there's a way where there's a will;'
55.5 But let life ripen and then fall. Will is not the way at all: Deny the way of life and you are dead.

56.1 Those who know do not tell, Those who tell do not know.
56.2 Not to set the tongue loose But to curb it, Not to have edges that catch But to remain untangled, Unblinded, Unconfused, Is to find balance,
56.3 And he who holds balance beyond sway of love or hate, Beyond reach of profit or loss, Beyond care of praise or blame, Has attained the highest post in the world.

57.1 A realm is governed by ordinary acts, A battle is governed by extraordinary acts; The world is governed by no acts at all. And how do I know? This is how I know.
57.2 Act after act prohibits Everything but poverty, Weapon after weapon conquers Everything but chaos,
57.3 Business after business provides A craze of waste, Law after law breeds A multitude of thieves.
57.4 Therefore a sensible man says: If I keep from meddling with people, they take care of themselves, If I keep from commanding people, they behave themselves,
57.5 If I keep from preaching at people, they improve themselves, If I keep from imposing on people, they become themselves.

58.1 The less a leader does and says The happier his people, The more a leader struts and brags The sorrier his people.
58.2 Often what appears to be unhappiness is happiness And what appears to be happiness is unhappiness.
58.3 Who can see what leads to What When happiness appears and yet is not, When what should be is nothing but a mask Disguising what should not be? Who can but ask An end to such a stupid plot!
58.4 Therefore a sound man shall so square the circle And circle the square as not to injure, not to impede: The glow of his life shall not daze, It shall lead.

59.1 To lead men and serve heaven, weigh the worth Of the one source:
59.2 Use the single force Which doubles the strength of the strong By enabling man to go right, disabling him to go wrong, Be so charged with the nature of life that you give your people birth,
59.3 That you mother your land, are the fit
59.4 And ever living root of it: The seeing root, whose eye is infinite.

60.1 Handle a large kingdom with as gentle a touch as if you were cooking a small fish.
60.2 If you manage people by letting them alone, Ghosts of the dead shall not haunt you.
60.3 Not that there are no ghosts But that their influence become propitious
60.4 In the sound existence of a living man: There is no difference between the quick and the dead, They are one channel of vitality.

61.1 A large country is the low level of interflowing rivers. It draws people to the sea-end of a valley As the female draws the male, Receives it into absorbing depth Because depth always absorbs.
61.2 And so a large country, inasfar as it is deeper than a small country, Absorbs the small - Or a small country, inasfar as it is deeper than a large country, Absorbs the large.
61.3 Some countries consciously seek depth into which to draw others. Some countries naturally have depth into which to draw others:
61.4 A large country needs to admit, A small country needs to emit,
61.5 And so each country can naturally have what it needs If the large country submit.

62.1 Existence is sanctuary: It is a good man's purse, It is also a bad man's keep.
62.2 Clever performances come dear or cheap, Goodness comes free; And how shall a man who acts better deny a man who acts worse This right to be.
62.3 Rather, when an emperor is crowned, let the three Ministers whom he appoints to receive for him fine horses and gifts of jade Receive for him also the motionless gift of integrity,
62.4 The gift prized as highest by those ancients who said, 'Only pursue an offended to show him the way.' What men in all the world could have more wealth than they?

63.1 Men knowing the way of life Do without acting, Effect without enforcing, Taste without consuming;
63.2 'Through the many they find the few, Through the humble the great;' They 'respect their foes,'
63.3 They 'face the simple fact before it becomes involved. Solve the small problem before it becomes big.'
63.4 The most involved fact in the world Could have been faced when it was simple, The biggest problem in the world Could have been solved when it was small.
63.5 The simple fact that he finds no problem big Is the sane man's prime achievement.
63.6 If you say yes too quickly You may have to say no, If you think things are done too easily You may find them hard to do:
63.7 If you face trouble sanely It cannot trouble you.

64.1 Before it move, hold it, Before it go wrong, mould it, Drain off water in winter before it freeze, Before weeds grow, sow them to the breeze,
64.2 You can deal with what has not happened, can foresee Harmful events and not allow them to be.
64.3 Thought - as naturally as a seed becomes a tree of arm-wide girth -/ There can rise a nine-tiered tower from a man's handful of earth Or here at your feet a thousand-mile journey have birth,
64.4 Quick action bruises, Quick grasping loses. Therefore a sane man's care is not to exert One move that can miss, one move that can hurt.
64.5 Most people who miss, after almost winning, Should have 'known the end from the beginning.'
64.6 The cultured might call him heathenish, This man of few words, because his one care Is not to interfere but to let nature renew The sense of direction men undo.

65.1 Sound old rulers, it is said, Left people to themselves, instead Of wanting to teach everything And start the people arguing.
65.2 With mere instruction in command, So that people understand Less than they know, woe is the land; But happy the land that is ordered so
65.3 That they understand more than they know. For everyone's good this double key Locks and unlocks equally.
65.4 If modern man would use it, he Could find old wisdom in his heart And clear his vision enough to see From start to finish and finish to start The circle rounding perfectly.

66.1 Why are rivers and seas lords of the waters? Because they afford the common level And so become lords of the waters.
66.2 The common people love a sound man Because he does not talk above their level, Because, though he lead them, He follows them,
66.3 He imposes no weight upon them; And they in turn, because he does not impede them, Yield to him, content:
66.4 People never tire of anyone Who is not bent upon comparison.

67.1 Everyone says that my way of life is the way of a simpleton. Being largely the way of a simpleton is what makes it worth while. If it were not the way of a simpleton It would long ago have been worthless,
67.2 These possessions of a simpleton being the three I choose And cherish: To care, To be fair, To be humble.
67.3 When a man cares he is unafraid, When he is fair he leaves enough for others, When he is humble he can grow;
67.4 Whereas if, like men of today, he be bold without caring, Self-indulgent without sharing, Self-important without shame, He is dead.
67.5 The invincible shield Of caring Is a weapon from the sky Against being dead.

68.1 The best captain does not plunge headlong Nor is the best soldier a fellow hot to fight.
68.2 The greatest victor wins without a battle: He who overcomes men understands them.
68.3 There is a quality of quietness Which quickens people by no stress: 'Fellowship with heaven,' as of old, Is fellowship with man and keeps its hold.

69.1 The handbook of the strategist has said: 'Do not invite the fight, accept it instead,' 'Better a foot behind than an inch too far ahead,'
69.2 Which means: Look a man straight in the face and make no move, Roll up your sleeve and clench no fist, Open your hand and show no weapon, Bare your breast and find no foe.
69.3 But as long as there be a foe, value him, respect him, measure him, be humble toward him; Let him not strip from you, however strong he be, Compassion, the one wealth which can afford him.

70.1 My way is so simple to feel, so easy to apply, That only a few will feel it or apply it.
70.2 If it were not the lasting way, the natural way to try, If it were a passing way, everyone would try it. But however few shall go my way Or feel concerned with me, Some there are and those are they Who witness what they see:
70.3 Sanity is a haircloth sheath With a jewel underneath.

71.1 A man who knows how little he knows is well, A man who knows how much he knows is sick. If, when you see the symptoms, you can tell, Your cure is quick.
71.2 A sound man knows that sickness makes him sick And before he catches it his cure is quick.

72.1 Upon those who defy authority It shall be visited,
72.2 But not behind prison walls Nor through oppression of their kin; Men sanely led Are not led by duress.
72.3 To know yourself and not show yourself, To think well of yourself and not tell of yourself, Be that your no and your yes.

73.1 A man with outward courage dares to die, A man with inward courage dares to live;
73.2 But either of these men Has better and a worse side than the other. And who can tell exactly to which qualities heaven objects?
73.3 Heaven does nothing to win the day, Says nothing - Is echoed, Orders nothing - Is obeyed, Advises nothing - Is right:
73.4 And which of us, seeing that nothing is out side the vast Wide-meshed net of heaven, knows just how it is cast?

74.1 Death is no threat to people Who are not afraid to die;
74.2 But even if these offenders feared death all day, Who would be rash enough To act as executioner?
74.3 Nature is executioner. When man usurps the place, A carpenter's apprentice takes the place of the master: And 'an apprentice hacking with the master's axe May slice his own hand.'

75.1 People starve If taxes eat their grain,
75.2 And the faults of starving people Are the fault of their rulers. That is why people rebel.
75.3 Men who have to fight for their living And are not afraid to die for it Are higher men than those who, stationed high, Are too fat to dare to die.

76.1 Man, born tender and yielding, Stiffens and hardens in death.
76.2 All living growth is pliant, Until death transfixes it.
76.3 Thus men who have hardened are 'kin of death' And men who stay gentle are 'kin of life.'
76.4 Thus a hard-hearted army is doomed to lose. A tree hard-fleshed is cut down:
76.5 Down goes the tough and big, Up comes the tender sprig.

77.1 Is not existence Like a drawn bow? The ends approach, The height shortens, the narrowness widens.
77.2 True living would take from those with too much Enough for those with too little, Whereas man exacts from those with too little Still more for those with too much.
77.3 Now what man shall have wealth enough to share with all men Save one who can freely draw from the common means?
77.4 A sane man needs no better support, no richer reward, Than this common means, Through which he is all men's equal.

78.1 What is more fluid, more yielding than water? Yet it comes back again, wearing down the rigid strength which cannot yield to withstand it.
78.2 So it is that the strong are overcome by the weak, The haughty by the humble. This we know But never learn,
78.3 So that when wise men tell us, 'He who bites the dust Is owner of the earth, He who is scapegoat Is king,' They seem to twist the truth.

79.1 If terms to end a quarrel leave bad feeling, What good are they?
79.2 So a sensible man takes the poor end of the bargain Without quibbling.
79.3 It is sensible to make terms, Foolish to be a stickler:
79.4 Though heaven prefer no man, A sensible man prefers heaven.

80.1 If a land is small and its people are few, With tenfold enough to heave and do, And if no one has schooled them to waste supply In the country for which they live and would die,
80.2 Then not a boat, not a cart Tempts this people to depart, Not a dagger, not a bow Has to be drawn or bent for show,
80.3 People reckon by knots in a cord, Relish plain food on the board, Simple clothing suits them well, And they remain content to dwell In homes their customs can afford.
80.4 Though so close to their own town another town grow They can hear its dogs bark and its roosters crow, Yet glad of life in the village they know, Where else in the world shall they need to go?

81.1 Real word are not vain, Vain words not real;
81.2 And since those who argue prove nothing A sensible man does not argue.
81.3 A sensible man is wiser than he knows, While a fool knows more than is wise.
81.4 Therefore a sensible man does not devise resources: The greater his use to others The greater their use to him, The more he yields to others The more they yield to him.
81.5 The way of life cleaves without cutting: Which, without need to say, Should be man's way.

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